Battle Of The Red Cliffs
Erleben Sie die reiche Geschichte Chinas in 3 Kingdoms – Battle of Red Cliffs, ein 3×5, 25 Linien Videoslot. Die Generäle Cao Cao, Liu Bei und Sun Quan. The Battle of Red Cliffs: The History and Legacy of the Decisive Battle Fought Near the Start of Ancient China's Three Kingdoms Period (English Edition) eBook. Die Schlacht von Chibi, auch als Schlacht am Roten Felsen, genauer: Schlacht an der Roten Felswand bekannt, war eine entscheidende Schlacht im Anbruch der Zeit der Drei Reiche in China.
Schlacht von ChibiThe Battle of Red Cliffs: The History and Legacy of the Decisive Battle Fought Near the Start of Ancient China's Three Kingdoms Period | Charles River Editors. The Battle of Red Cliffs: The History and Legacy of the Decisive Battle Fought Near the Start of Ancient China's Three Kingdoms Period (English Edition) eBook. Oder ihr zeigt euren bekannten das „Mah-Jongg“ Kartenspiel von Ta-Te Wu „The Battle of Red Cliffs“, welches er in Essen nochmal.
Battle Of The Red Cliffs Download Dragon Throne: Battle of Red Cliffs VideoBattle of the Red Cliffs - Three Kingdoms for China l HISTORY OF CHINA
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Sign In or Open in Steam. VR Support. Includes 17 Steam Achievements. Red Cliffs, the battleground of the three kingdoms, ink painting by Wu Yuanzhi, of the 12th century.
Yet in the southeast of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, the most fertile land in China, a new kingdom named Wu was rising.
When Wu learned the news, the opinions in the ruling circle were sharply divided. Most military generals wanted to take up the challenge but some scholar-officials prefered to buy peace with money, land and even sovereign rights.
Zhuge Liang, the top political and military advisor of Shu Kingdom, saw clearly that once Wu was destroyed by the superpower, the next target would be Shu, the weakest and poorest among the three.
His hard work paid off. Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu toasted to each other in their small boat. Unable to assess the scale of the attack with no time to conduct further investigation, Cao Cao hurriedly instructed his men to fire arrows at the boats.
The boats turned around and swiftly sailed away. Beijing Opera The Battle of Red Cliffs: Zhou Yu, the command-in-chief of Wu Kingdom, played by Ye Shaolan; Huang Gai, a Wu general, played by Shang Changrong.
Both Zhuge Liang and Zhou Yu's respective plans complement each other when Cao Cao is convinced, despite earlier having doubts about Jiang Gan's report, that Cai and Zhang were indeed planning to assassinate him by deliberately 'donating' arrows to the enemy.
Cai and Zhang are executed and Cao Cao realised his folly afterwards but it was too late. Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang decide to attack Cao Cao's navy with fire after knowing that there is a special climatic condition known only to Eastern Wu's forces, that the South-East Wind to their advantage would blow sometime soon.
As the Eastern Wu forces made preparations for the fire attack, Huang Gai proposes to Zhou Yu the Self-Torture Ruse to increase their chances of success, but Zhou Yu does not heed it.
Before the battle, the forces of Eastern Wu have a final moment together, feasting on glutinous rice balls to celebrate the Winter Festival.
Meanwhile, Zhou Yu's wife Xiao Qiao heads towards Cao Cao's camp alone secretly, in hope of persuading Cao Cao to give up his ambitious plans but she fails and decides to distract him instead to buy time for the Eastern Wu forces.
The battle begins when the South-East Wind starts blowing in the middle of the night and the Eastern Wu forces launch their full-scale attack on Cao Cao's navy.
On the other hand, Liu Bei's forces, which had apparently left the alliance, start attacking Cao Cao's forts on land. The allied forces launch another offensive on Cao Cao's ground army, stationed in his forts, and succeeded in breaking through using testudo formation despite suffering heavy casualties.
Although Cao Cao is besieged in his main camp, he manages to holds Zhou Yu hostage after catching him off guard together with Cao Hong.
Xiahou Jun appears as well holding Xiao Qiao hostage and causes the allied forces to hesitate. In the nick of time, Zhao Yun manages to reverse the situation by rescuing Xiao Qiao with a surprise attack and put Cao Cao at the mercy of the allied forces instead.
Eventually, the allied forces decide to spare Cao Cao's life and tell him never to return before leaving for home. In the final scenes, Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang are seen having a final conversation before Zhuge Liang walks away into the far distance with the newborn foal Mengmeng.
To commemorate these trips, Su wrote two rhapsodies that would earn him universal praise in the annals of Chinese literature: "Odes to the Red Cliff.
In his rhapsodies Su yearned nostalgically for the daring bravura of heroes who fought at Red Cliff centuries earlier, while also facing the realities of life's brevity and the hypocritical nature of people.
Consequently, he was able to develop a clear and philosophical form of critical self-examination on the aspects of change and permanence.
It was exactly the predicaments of his personal difficulties at this time that made it possible for Su to see through the veil of history and make the trips to his Red Cliff passed down and commemorated through the ages.
For example, dramas based on stories revolving around Su Shi and Red Cliff were produced in great numbers during the following Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties.
Countless calligraphers also repeatedly transcribed Su's two rhapsodies on Red Cliff, which likewise became popular among painters wishing to illustrate and celebrate Su Shi.
Yet he was not the first one to have told the story of the Three Kingdoms and Red Cliff. The narrative tradition started with Cheng Shou's History of the Three Kingdoms, a historian's account written in the Jin dynasty when China was reunified by the house of Sima.
Some even engaged renowned writers such as Li Zhi, Zhong Xing, Li Yu, and Mao Zonggang for annotation, boosting the social status of the novel and its reading.
It won such rave review and was so enthusiastically received that Li Yu and Jin Shengtan ranked it as the "Top of the Four Wonder Books", and a "Most Brilliant Writing of Talent and Taste".
Twice he was exiled for his sharp criticisms of imperial policy. Su is also one of the most noted poets of the Northern Song period.
The following short essay describes a small boat party on the Yangzi River. The boat-trip took place at Red Cliff, traditionally thought to be the place where Cao Cao a disastrous defeat at the hands of his enemies, Liu Bei and Sun Chuan, in He holds a particularly revered position in Chinese literary history, and ranks as one of the Four Song Masters in calligraphy, while being the first scholar to create the scholar painting in Chinese painting history.
He is one of the most important literary masters in the Northern Song period. Su had a very unstable career as a government official, and was exiled from court that resulted from the Wutai Poem Incident to Huangzhow in the 2nd Year of Yuan Feng This marked a turning point in his life and work, and the Former and Latter Odes to the Red Cliff were representative works from this period.
The Ode depicted Su and his friends travelling on a small boat to visit the Red Nose Cliff just outside Huangzhow city on July 16 in the 5th Year of Yuan Feng , and recalled the Battle of Red Cliff when Sun Quan won victory over the Cao army during the times of the Three Kingdoms; through this Ode, Su expressed his views about the universe and life in general.
From Su's particular reminders of "living in fear of more troubles", and "by your love for me, you will hold this Ode in secrecy", one has a sense of Su's fear as a result of being implicated in the emperor's displeasure over writings.
The entire scroll is composed in regular script, the characters broad and tightly written, the brushstrokes full and smooth, showing that Su had achieved perfect harmony between the elegant flow in the style of the Two Wang Masters that he learned from in his early years, and the more heavy simplicity in the style of Yen Zhenqing that he learned in his middle ages.
A cool wind blew gently, without starting a ripple. I raised my cup to pledge the guests; and we chanted the Full Moon ode, and sang out the verse about the modest lady.
After a while the moon came up above the hills to the east, and wandered between the Dipper and the Herdboy Star; a dewy whiteness spanned the river, merging the light on the water into the sky.
We let the tiny reed drift on its course, over ten thousand acres of dissolving surface which streamed to the horizon, as though we were leaning on the void with the winds for chariot, on a journey none knew where, hovering above as though we had left the world of men behind us and risen as immortals on newly sprouted wings.
So far, the one I yearn for, The girl up there at the other end of the sky! The notes were like sobs, as though he were complaining, longing, weeping, accusing; the wavering resonance lingered, a thread of sound which did not snap off, till the dragons underwater danced in the black depths, and a widow wept in our lonely boat.
At the time when he smote Ching. And what are you and I compared with him? Let me cling to a flying immortal and roam far off, and live forever with the full moon in my arms!
But knowing that this art is not easily learned, I commit the fading echoes to the sad wind. For if you look at the aspect which changes, heaven and earth cannot last for one blink; but if you look at the aspect which is changeless, the worlds within and outside you are both inexhaustible, and what reasons have you to envy anything?
Only the cool wind on the river, or the full moon in the mountains, caught by the ear becomes a sound, or met by the eye changes to colour; no one forbids me to make it mine, no limit is set to the use of it; this is the inexhaustible treasury of the creator of things, and you and I can share in the joy of it.
We washed the cups and poured more wine. After the nuts and savouries were finished, and the wine. The printing process was extremely careful, having particularly procured ancient editions, made corrections and annotations and cross-checked the references, as well as commissioned the famous type cutters of Nanking - Wan Xiyao and Wei Shaofeng - to cut the type.
It can be said to be the highest quality edition of the bookshop. The text was then slightly edited to seem more elegant.
The illustrations identify the chapter, and on each side of the drawing is a short rhyme composed on the subject of the chapter, which are all written by literati.
The function of these rhymes is rather like a theatrical show, where antithetical couplets are used as a hint to the audience.
It is worth noting that the lines of the illustrations are energetic, the characters clearly outlined, with vivid and dynamic depictions of action, especially for those climatic chapters.
Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: " It is out of all reason for Zhou Yu to take the credit for himself.
By the end of , the post Cao Cao had established at Jiangling fell to Zhou Yu. Liu Bei gained territory by taking over the four commanderies Wuling, Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang south of the Yangtze River.
Sun Quan's troops had suffered far greater casualties than Liu Bei's in the extended conflict against Cao Ren following the Battle of Red Cliffs and the death of Zhou Yu in resulted in a drastic weakening of Sun Quan's strength in Jing Province de Crespigny —92, Liu Bei also occupied Jing Province that Cao Cao had recently lost—a strategic and naturally fortified area on the Yangtze River that Sun Quan claimed for himself.
The control of Jing Province provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Yi Province and important waterways into Wu southeastern China and dominion of the southern Yangtze River.
Never again would Cao Cao command so large a fleet as he had at Jiangling, nor would a similar opportunity to destroy his southern rivals present itself again de Crespigny The Battle of Red Cliffs and the capture of Jing Province by Liu Bei confirmed the separation of southern China from the northern heartland of the Yellow River valley and foreshadowed a north-south axis of hostility that would continue for centuries de Crespigny The precise location of the Red Cliffs battlefield has long been the subject of both popular and academic debates, but has never been conclusively established.
There are clear grounds for rejecting at least some of these proposals, but four alternative locations are still advocated. According to Zhang , many of the current debates stem from the fact that the course and length of the Yangtze River between Wuli and Wuhan has changed since the Sui and Tang dynasties Zhang The modern-day debate is also complicated by the fact that the names of some of the key locations have changed over the following centuries.
For example, although modern Huarong city is located in Hunan, south of the Yangtze, in the 3rd century the city of that name was due east of Jiangling, considerably north of the Yangtze Zhang ; de Crespigny 78n.
Historical records state that Cao Cao's forces retreated north across the Yangtze after the initial engagement at Red Cliffs, unequivocally placing the battle site on the south bank of the Yangtze.
For this reason, a number of sites on the north bank have been discounted by historians and geographers. Historical accounts also establish east and west boundaries for a stretch of the Yangtze which encompasses all possible sites for the battlefield.
The allied forces travelled upstream from either Fankou or Xiakou. Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean with northeast and southeast meanders , Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream.
The westernmost boundary is also clear, since Cao Cao's eastern advance from Jiangling included passing Baqiu present-day Yueyang , Hunan on the shore of Dongting Lake.
The battle must also have been downstream northeast of that location de Crespigny —57; Zhang Support for this conjecture arises largely due to the famous 11th-century poem " First Rhapsody on the Red Cliffs ", which equates the Huangzhou Hill with the battlefield location.
Excluding tone marks , the pinyin romanization of this cliff's name is "Chibi", the same as the pinyin for Red Cliffs. This site is also on the north bank of the Yangtze, and is directly across from Fankou rather than upstream from it Zhang Moreover, if the allied Sun-Liu forces left from Xiakou rather than Fankou, as the oldest historical sources suggest,  then the hill in Huangzhou would have been downstream from the point of departure, a possibility which cannot be reconciled with historical sources.
Puqi, now named Chibi City, is perhaps the most widely accepted candidate. It is directly across the Yangtze from Wulin. This argument was first proposed in the early Tang dynasty Zhang There are also characters engraved in the cliffs see image at the top of this page suggesting that this is the site of the battle.
The origin of the engraving can be dated to between the Tang and Song dynasties, making it at least 1, years old Zhang , This would place the battlefield downstream from Puqi Chibi City , a view that is supported by scholars of Chinese history such as Rafe de Crespigny , Wang Li and Zhu Dongrun , following the Qing dynasty historical document Shui Jing Zhu de Crespigny Another candidate is Wuhan , which straddles the Yangtze at the confluence of the Yangtze and Han rivers.
It is east of both Wulin and Chibi City across the river and Jiayu. This metropolis was incorporated by joining three cities.
There is a local belief in Wuhan that the battle was fought at the junction of the rivers, southwest of the former Wuchang city, which is now part of Wuhan de Crespigny n Zhang , asserts that the Chibi battlefield was one of a set of hills in Wuchang that were levelled in the s so that their stone could be used as raw material.
The romantic tradition that originated with the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms differs from historical accounts in many details.
For example, Cao Cao's army strength was exaggerated to over , men. This may be attributed to the ethos of later times, particularly of the Southern Song dynasty de Crespigny The state of Shu Han, in particular, was viewed by later literati as the "legitimate" successor to the Han dynasty, so fictionalised accounts assign greater prominence than the historical records warrant to the roles of Liu Bei , Zhuge Liang and other heroes from Shu.